April 12, 2022

What Happened in 1938 Soon after the Munich Agreement


Hitler was open about his refusal to accept many of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Shortly after becoming Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he again began arming the country and breaking the restrictions imposed on the German Wehrmacht. In 1936 he sent German troops to the Rhineland and in March 1938 he joined Germany and Austria. Czechoslovakia was the next logical step in its aggression, and the German Nazis in the Sudetenland were asked to stir up the difficulties that led to the crisis studied here. Edvard Benes, the leader of Czechoslovakia, feared that if Germany received the Sudetenland, most of the Czech defense would be handed over to the Germans and that they would remain defenseless. On 5 October, Beneš resigned as President of Czechoslovakia, recognizing that the fall of Czechoslovakia was inevitable. After the outbreak of World War II, he formed a Czechoslovak government-in-exile in London. On 6 December 1938, the Franco-German Non-Aggression Pact is signed in Paris by French Foreign Minister Bonnet and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. [80] [81] [82]. The solution to the Czechoslovak problem, which has just been found, is, in my opinion, only the prelude to a broader settlement in which the whole of Europe can find peace. This morning I had another conversation with the German Chancellor, Mr Hitler, and here is the newspaper that bears his name, as well as mine. Some of you may have heard what`s in it, but I just want to read it to you: “. We regard the agreement signed last night and the Anglo-German naval agreement as a symbol of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with each other again.

[96] After successfully accepting Austria into Germany proper in March 1938, Adolf Hitler seemed desirable in Czechoslovakia, where about three million people in the Sudetenland were of German origin. In April, he discussed with Wilhelm Keitel, the head of the Bundeswehr`s high command, the political and military aspects of “Case Green,” the code name for the planned Sudeten takeover. A surprise attack on “clear skies with no reason or justification” was rejected because the result would have been “hostile world opinion that could lead to a critical situation.” Decisive action would therefore take place only after a period of German political turmoil in Czechoslovakia, accompanied by diplomatic disputes which, as they became more serious, either built up war excuses themselves or created the occasion for a lightning offensive after an “incident” of German creativity. In addition, there had been disturbing political activities in Czechoslovakia since October 1933, when Konrad Henlein founded the Sudeten German Home Front. On September 30, he returned to Heston Airfield with an agreement that eliminated the imminent threat and allowed Hitler to annex parts of Czechoslovakia. He brandished a statement signed by the two leaders declaring that the agreement was “symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with each other again.” Speaking in Downing Street shortly after, he said he promised “peace for our time”. This optimism was short-lived, as the Munich Accords were broken in less than a year and Britain went to war against the Nazi invasion of Poland. The above declaration and the formal act of recognition have guided the policy of Her Majesty`s Government towards Czechoslovakia, but in order to avoid possible misunderstandings, I would like to state on behalf of Her Majesty`s Government in the United Kingdom that, since Germany has complied with the 1938 Agreements on Czechoslovakia, in which His Majesty`s Government in the United Kingdom was involved, intentionally destroyed. Her Majesty`s Government considers itself free from any obligation in this regard. In the final settlement of the Czechoslovak borders to be reached at the end of the war, they are not affected by the changes made in 1938 and since.

When Germany, France, Britain and Italy signed the Munich Accords in the early morning of September 30, 1938, the Nazis took control of the Czechoslovak Sudetenland, where ethnic Germans lived mainly along the Czech borders. The treaty also allowed Germany to take control of Czechoslovakia, which it officially did on March 15, 1939. It should be noted that Czechoslovakia was not represented at the conference that decided the fate of that country. In retrospect, the deal is seen as a failed attempt to avoid war with Nazi Germany. West Germany`s policy of remaining neutral in the Arab-Israeli conflict after the Munich massacre and the hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 615 in 1972, rather than adopting the resolute pro-Israel stance of previous governments, has led to Israeli comparisons with the Munich appeasement agreement. [110] The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on September 30, 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. He granted Germany the “cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia. [1] Most of Europe celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking. .

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