April 18, 2022

What Was the Munich Agreement of 1938

Chamberlain wrote in a letter to his sister Hilda on October 2, 1938: The British people expected an imminent war, and Chamberlain`s “statesman gesture” was initially greeted with applause. He was greeted as a hero by the royal family and invited to the balcony of Buckingham Palace before presenting the deal to the British Parliament. The generally positive reaction quickly deteriorated, despite the royal patronage. However, there was resistance from the beginning. Clement Attlee and the Labour Party rejected the deal, in alliance with two Conservative MPs, Duff Cooper and Vyvyan Adams, who until then had been seen as a hardened and reactionary element of the Conservative Party. By December 1938, the Sudetenland was the most National Socialist region in the Reich, with half a million Sudeten Germans becoming members of the NSDAP. Daladier was convinced that the deal would not appease the Nazis and that disaster was yet to come, while Chamberlain thought there was reason to celebrate, mistakenly convinced that he had achieved peace. The day after the agreement was signed, Germany retook the Sudetenland. The Czechoslovaks did not retaliate.

On March 15, 1939, Hitler occupied Bohemia and Moravia, and Czechoslovakia ceased to exist. Slovakia had become an autonomous Nazi puppet state the day before. Many Sudeten Germans acquired jobs in the protectorate or as Gestapo agents because they were fluent in Czech. Northern Ruthenia, which hoped for independence, was taken over by Hungary. At the beginning of November 1938, after the First Vienna Award, after the failure of negotiations between Czechoslovakia and Hungary, as a recommendation for the settlement of territorial disputes by the Annex to the Munich Agreement, the German-Italian arbitration procedure required Czechoslovakia to cede southern Slovakia and one third of Slovak territory to Hungary, and Poland received small territorial cessions (Zaolzie) shortly thereafter. The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on September 30, 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. He granted Germany the “cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia. [1] Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking. Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. The Germans and their collaborators killed about 263,000 Jews who lived on the territory of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1938. On the 22nd.

Chamberlain, who was about to board his plane to go to Bad Godesberg in Germany for further discussions, told the press who met him there: “My goal is peace in Europe, I am confident that this journey is the path to that peace.” Chamberlain arrived in Cologne, where he was generously received with a German band playing “God Save the King” and Germans giving flowers and gifts to Chamberlain.[32] [32] Chamberlain had calculated that full acceptance of the German annexation of all sudetenland without reductions would force Hitler to accept the agreement. [32] When Hitler learned of this, he replied, “Does this mean that the Allies accepted Prague`s consent to the surrender of the Sudetenland to Germany?” Chamberlain replied, “Exactly,” to which Hitler responded by shaking his head, saying that the Allied offer was insufficient. He told Chamberlain that he wanted Czechoslovakia completely dissolved and its territories redistributed to Germany, Poland, and Hungary, and told Chamberlain to take it or leave it. [32] Chamberlain was shocked by this statement. [32] Hitler went on to tell Chamberlain that since their last meeting on the 15th, Czechoslovakia`s actions, which Hitler said involved killing Germans, had made the situation unbearable for Germany. [32] The plebisciteIn order to give him control of the regions where sudeten Germans are in the minority, the means of the referendum (which was rejected as part of the Anglo-French proposals) were used. Mr. Chamberlain and Mr. Daladier asked Hitler what the referendum was for and how he could expect without intimidation a Sudeten German majority, in areas where they are known to be a minority? The elections and referendums held under Hitler offer many examples of how they can be manipulated. On 4 December 1938, 97.32% of the adult population voted for the NSDAP in the elections in the Reichsgau Sudetenland. About half a million Sudeten Germans joined the NSDAP, or 17.34% of the Sudeten German population (the average participation in the NSDAP in Nazi Germany was 7.85%).

This made the Sudetenland the most “pro-National Socialist” region of the Third Reich. [89] In Munich, Hitler won what he wanted— domination over Central Europe —and German troops marched into the Sudetenland on the night of October 1.